Is BGP safe yet? No.

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the postal service of the Internet. It’s responsible for looking at all of the available paths that data could travel and picking the best route.

Unfortunately, it isn’t secure, and there have been some major Internet disruptions as a result. But fortunately there is a way to make it secure.

ISPs and other major Internet players (Comcast, Sprint, Verizon, and others) would need to implement a certification system, called RPKI.

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Status

Displaying 28 major operators

NameTypeDetailsStatusASN ?
Telia transit signed + filtering safe 1299
GTT transit signed + filtering safe 3257
NTT transit signed + filtering safe 2914
KPN transit signed + filtering safe 286
Core-Backbone transit signed + filtering safe 33891
G8 transit signed + filtering safe 28329
Next Layer GmbH transit signed + filtering safe 1764
OpenX transit signed + filtering safe 263444
Jaguar Network ISP signed + filtering safe 30781
Acorus Networks ISP signed + filtering safe 35280
Telenor ISP signed + filtering safe 2119
ANEXIA Internetdienstleistungs GmbH transit signed + filtering safe 47147
Biznet Networks ISP signed + filtering safe 17451
RCN ISP signed + filtering safe 6079
Devoli ISP signed + filtering safe 45177
MNET ISP signed + filtering safe 8767
ViewQwest ISP signed + filtering safe 18106
cyta ISP signed + filtering safe 6866
Obenetwork ISP signed + filtering safe 197595
Bredband2 ISP signed + filtering safe 29518
UltraWave Telecom ISP signed + filtering safe 262659
noris network AG ISP signed + filtering safe 12337
Cablenet Cyprus ISP signed + filtering safe 35432
SpaceNet ISP signed + filtering safe 5539
A2B Internet ISP signed + filtering safe 51088
Cloudflare cloud signed + filtering safe 13335
xs4all cloud signed + filtering safe 3265
Dhiraagu ISP signed + filtering safe 7642
APIK Media cloud signed + filtering safe 58820
EOLO ISP signed + filtering safe 35612
Atria Convergence ISP signed + filtering safe 24309
Via Radio Dourados transit signed + filtering safe 61785
ACT Fibernet ISP signed + filtering safe 18209
Get (Telia Norway) ISP signed + filtering safe 41164
EBOX ISP signed + filtering safe 1403
VoiceHost ISP signed + filtering safe 31472
Neptune Networks cloud signed + filtering safe 397143
Gigabit DK ISP signed + filtering safe 60876
Clearfly Communications ISP signed + filtering safe 27400
Tech Futures ISP signed + filtering safe 394256
Wikimedia Foundation cloud signed + filtering safe 14907
Scaleway cloud signed + filtering safe 12876
ASERGO cloud signed + filtering safe 30736
Redder ISP signed + filtering safe 33986
Green Mini host cloud signed + filtering safe 205668
Kviknet DK ISP signed + filtering safe 204151
Terrahost cloud signed + filtering safe 56655
Cogent transit filtering peers only partially safe 174
TATA transit filtering peers only partially safe 6453
PCCW transit filtering peers only partially safe 3491
AT&T ISP signed + filtering peers only partially safe 7018
Liberty Global transit signed partially safe 6830
Ensite Telecom transit signed + filtering partially safe 28263
Vivacom ISP signed partially safe 8866
ColoCrossing cloud filtering partially safe 36352
Triolan ISP filtering partially safe 13188
Amazon cloud signed partially safe 16509
LeapSwitch Networks cloud filtering partially safe 132335
GTHost cloud filtering partially safe 63023
volumedrive cloud filtering partially safe 46664
MadeIT cloud filtering partially safe 54455
Pacswitch ISP filtering partially safe 55536
Level3/CenturyLink transit unsafe 3356
Sparkle transit started unsafe 6762
Hurricane Electric transit signed unsafe 6939
Zayo transit unsafe 6461
Vodafone transit unsafe 1273
RETN transit unsafe 9002
Orange transit started unsafe 5511
Telstra transit unsafe 4637
Telefonica/Telxius transit unsafe 12956
SingTel transit unsafe 7473
PJSC RosTelecom transit unsafe 12389
Deutsche Telekom ISP started unsafe 3320
Verizon ISP unsafe 701
Comcast ISP unsafe 7922
TransTelecom transit unsafe 20485
Algar Telecom transit unsafe 16735
Globenet transit unsafe 52320
Sprint transit unsafe 1239
Telefonica Vivo transit unsafe 10429
Internexa transit unsafe 262589
Angola Cables transit unsafe 37468
China Telecom transit unsafe 4809
Oi ISP unsafe 7738
Vivo GVT ISP unsafe 18881
Embratel transit unsafe 4230
Telekom Hungary ISP signed unsafe 5483
Eletronet transit unsafe 267613
Windstream Communications ISP unsafe 7029
TIM Brasil ISP unsafe 26615
Swisscom ISP unsafe 3303
MOB Telecom transit unsafe 28598
Cox Communications ISP unsafe 22773
Seabras transit unsafe 13786
TPG transit unsafe 7545
Durand transit unsafe 22356
Bell Canada ISP unsafe 577
SK Broadband ISP unsafe 9318
Optimum ISP unsafe 6128
RCS&RDS ISP unsafe 8708
Commcorp transit unsafe 14840
TurkTelekom ISP unsafe 9121
M247 cloud unsafe 9009
A1 Telekom Austria ISP unsafe 8447
Wave Broadband ISP unsafe 11404
Init7 (Schweiz) AG ISP started unsafe 13030
American Tower Brasil transit unsafe 23106
Vogel transit unsafe 25933
TIM ISP unsafe 3269
TELY transit unsafe 53087
Rogers ISP unsafe 812
British Telecommunications ISP unsafe 2856
Sunrise Communications AG ISP unsafe 6730
Forte Telecom transit unsafe 263009
ITS Telecom transit unsafe 28186
Alta Rede transit unsafe 28260
Vodafone DE ISP unsafe 3209
Virgin Media UK ISP unsafe 5089
Nianet A/S ISP signed unsafe 31027
Globe Telecom ISP unsafe 4775
HKBN ISP unsafe 9269
Copel Telecom transit unsafe 14868
Vocus Group NZ ISP unsafe 9790
ACONET transit started unsafe 1853
Wirelink transit unsafe 28368
SFR ISP unsafe 15557
TASCOM transit unsafe 52871
Psychz Networks cloud unsafe 40676
Hutchison Drei Austria ISP unsafe 25255
K2 Telecom transit unsafe 53181
NFOrce cloud signed unsafe 43350
SuddenLink ISP unsafe 19108
Kyivstar ISP unsafe 15895
Cogeco ISP unsafe 7992
DNA Oyj ISP unsafe 16086
Elisa Finland ISP unsafe 719
Reliance Jio ISP unsafe 55836
Spectrum ISP unsafe 12271
Beltelecom ISP unsafe 6697
Videotron ISP unsafe 5769
QuadraNet cloud unsafe 8100
Brisanet ISP unsafe 28126
Hetzner Online cloud signed unsafe 24940
eww ag transit unsafe 21013
CDN77 cloud unsafe 60068
ASAP Telecom transit unsafe 264144
G-Core Labs cloud unsafe 199524
Janet ISP unsafe 786
Telenet ISP unsafe 6848
NOS Portugal ISP unsafe 2860
Altibox ISP unsafe 29695
2degrees ISP unsafe 23655
NetCologne ISP unsafe 8422
Shentel ISP unsafe 4922
Proximus ISP unsafe 5432
FasterNET ISP unsafe 28580
Turknet ISP unsafe 12735
Maxihost cloud unsafe 262287
iiNet Limited ISP unsafe 4739
Siminn ISP unsafe 6677
Ziggo ISP signed unsafe 33915
IBM Cloud cloud unsafe 36351
Selectel Ltd cloud unsafe 49505
Total Server Solutions cloud unsafe 46562
xneelo cloud unsafe 37153
HotNet Internet Services ISP unsafe 12849
Synapsecom Telecoms cloud unsafe 8280
Pakistan Telecom Company Limited ISP unsafe 45595
A1 Belarus ISP unsafe 42772
NetCom BW ISP unsafe 41998
Continent 8 LLC cloud unsafe 14537
Selectel MSK cloud unsafe 50340
A3 Sverige ISP unsafe 45011
Deutsche Glasfaser ISP unsafe 60294
Google cloud unsafe 15169
Vodafone Portugal ISP unsafe 12353
TekSavvy ISP unsafe 5645
SkyCable ISP unsafe 23944
HostDime cloud unsafe 33182
Telefonica Peru ISP unsafe 6147
MTS Belarus ISP unsafe 25106
Microsoft cloud unsafe 8075
Aussie Broadband ISP started unsafe 4764
MEO Portugal ISP unsafe 3243
UK-2 Limited cloud unsafe 13213
SKY Brasil ISP unsafe 11338
Locaweb cloud unsafe 27715
K-NET ISP unsafe 24904
GSL Networks cloud unsafe 137409
Free SAS ISP signed unsafe 12322
Bouygues Telecom ISP unsafe 5410
EdgeUno cloud unsafe 7195
Networx Bulgaria ISP unsafe 34569
Oy Creanova Hosting Solutions Ltd cloud unsafe 51765
Ovnicom cloud unsafe 27796
Digi ISP unsafe 20845
ComHemAB ISP started unsafe 39651
O2 Broadband ISP unsafe 35228
Vodafone Hungary ISP unsafe 21334
FishNet cloud unsafe 43317
ArgonHost cloud unsafe 58477
OVH cloud unsafe 16276
Kingston Communications PLC ISP unsafe 12390
WestHost cloud unsafe 29854
Magenta (T-Mobile) Austria ISP unsafe 8412
trabia network cloud signed unsafe 43289
Alands Telekommunikation Ab ISP unsafe 3238
Packetexchange cloud unsafe 58065
Amanah cloud unsafe 32489
T-Mobile ISP unsafe 21928
Vodafone UK ISP unsafe 5378
Numericable ISP unsafe 21502
H4Y cloud signed unsafe 397373
Intergrid cloud unsafe 133480
Mobilink ISP unsafe 45669
Monkeybrains ISP unsafe 32329
BroadbandGibraltarLtd. ISP unsafe 34803
Cloud9 cloud unsafe 57814
Vodafone India ISP unsafe 38266
Afrihost ISP unsafe 37611
tzulo cloud unsafe 11878
Aura Fiber ISP unsafe 204274
Kaisanet Oy ISP unsafe 13170
eSecureData cloud signed unsafe 11831
Axcelx cloud unsafe 33083
ProveNET ISP unsafe 263945
Claro Brasil ISP unsafe 28573
EE ISP unsafe 12576
Plusnet ISP unsafe 6871
TurkCell ISP unsafe 16135
Free Mobile ISP unsafe 51207
Leaseweb USA-LAX-11 cloud unsafe 395954
T-Mobile Netherlands ISP unsafe 31615
Turksat ISP unsafe 47524
TOPNET ISP unsafe 37705
T-Mobile Thuis ISP signed unsafe 50266
Globe Telecom ISP unsafe 132199
Three UK ISP unsafe 206067
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ISP unsafe 36850
Leaseweb USA-SFO-12 cloud unsafe 7203
Leaseweb USA-SEA-10 cloud unsafe 396190
Leaseweb USA-WDC-01 cloud unsafe 30633
Millenicom ISP unsafe 34296
NetCup cloud unsafe 197540
Leaseweb USA-NYC-11 cloud unsafe 396362
Leaseweb USA-PHX-11 cloud unsafe 19148
A1 Hrvatska ISP unsafe 29485
PROMAX ISP unsafe 31423
Leaseweb USA-DAL-10 cloud unsafe 394380
Lanet Network ISP unsafe 47800
CBN Broadband ISP started unsafe 135478
Coextro ISP unsafe 36445
Leaseweb USA-MIA-11 cloud unsafe 393886
Web World Ireland cloud unsafe 30900
Database By Design LLC cloud unsafe 17090
nobistech cloud unsafe 15003
Dynamic Hosting cloud unsafe 36077
Avative Fiber ISP unsafe 394752
Globalhost d.o.o. cloud unsafe 200698
IPXON cloud unsafe 263812
NUTHOST cloud unsafe 264649
Estoxy cloud unsafe 208673

What’s a BGP hijack?

To better understand why BGP’s lack of security is so problematic, let’s look at a simplified model of how BGP is used to route Internet packets.

The Internet is not run by just one company. It’s made up of thousands of autonomous systems with nodes located all around the world, connected to each other in a massive graph.

In essence, the way BGP works is that each node must determine how to route packets using only what it knows from the nodes it connects with directly.

For example, in the simple network A–B–C–D–E, the node A only knows how to reach E based on information it received from B. The node B knows about the network from A and C. And so forth.

A BGP hijack occurs when a malicious node deceives another node, lying about what the routes are for its neighbors. Without any security protocols, this misinformation can propagate from node to node, until a large number of nodes now know about, and attempt to use these incorrect, nonexistent, or malicious routes.

Click “Hijack the request” to visualize how packets are re-routed:

Unsafe BGP: Normal request

Laptop
ISP
Hijacker
Transit
Malicious website
Cloud
Web resource

In order to make BGP safe, we need some way of preventing the spread of this misinformation. Since the Internet is so open and distributed, we can’t prevent malicious nodes from attempting to deceive other nodes in the first place. So instead we need to give nodes the ability to validate the information they receive, so they can reject these undesired routes on their own.

Enter Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), a security framework method that associates a route with an autonomous system. It gets a little technical, but the basic idea is that RPKI uses cryptography to provide nodes with a way of doing this validation.

With RPKI enabled, let’s see what happens to packets after an attemped BGP hijack. Click “Attempt to hijack” to visualize how RPKI allows the network to protect itself by invalidating the malicious routes:

Safe BGP with RPKI

Laptop
ISP
Hijacker
Transit
Malicious website
Cloud
Web resource

FAQ

What is BGP?

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the postal service of the Internet. When someone drops a letter into a mailbox, the postal service processes that piece of mail and chooses a fast, efficient route to deliver that letter to its recipient. Similarly, when someone submits data across the Internet, BGP is responsible for looking at all of the available paths that data could travel and picking the best route, which usually means hopping between autonomous systems. Learn more →

Why is BGP unsafe?

By default, BGP does not embed any security protocols. It is up to every autonomous system to implement filtering of “wrong routes”. Leaking routes can break parts of the Internet by making them unreachable. It is commonly the result of misconfigurations. Although, it is not always accidental. A practice called BGP hijack consists of redirecting traffic to another autonomous system to steal information (via phishing, or passive listening for instance).

BGP can be made safe if all autonomous systems (AS) only announce legitimate routes. A route is defined as legitimate when the owner of the resource allows its announcement. Filters need to be built in order to make sure only legitimate routes are accepted. There are a few approaches for BGP route validation which vary in degrees of trustability and efficiency. A mature implementation is RPKI.

What is RPKI?

With 800k+ routes on the Internet, it is impossible to check them manually. Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) is a security framework method that associates a route with an autonomous system. It uses cryptography in order to validate the information before being passed onto the routers. You can read more about RPKI on the Cloudflare blog.

On May 14th, Job Snijders from NTT will present a free RPKI 101 webinar.

How does the test work?

In order to test if your ISP is implementing BGP safely, we announce a legitimate route but we make sure the announcement is invalid. If you can load the website we host on that route, that means the invalid route was accepted by your ISP. A leaked or a hijacked route would likely be accepted too.

Can even more be done?

Over the years, network operators and developers started working groups to design and deploy standards to overcome unsafe routing protocols. Cloudflare recently joined a global initiative called Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security (MANRS). It’s a community of security-minded organizations committed to making routing infrastructure more robust and secure, and members agree to implement filtering mechanisms. New voices are always appreciated.

What can you do?

Share this page. For BGP to be safe, all of the major ISPs will need to embrace RPKI. Sharing this page will increase awareness of the problem which can ultimately pressure ISPs into implementing RPKI for the good of themselves and the general public. You can also reach out to your service provider or hosting company directly and ask them to deploy RPKI and join MANRS. When the Internet is safe, everybody wins.